Brain Function/Emotional Health

The short-term effects of cervical manipulation on edge light pupil cycle time: A pilot study. Gibbons, PF, Gosling CM, Holmes, M Journal of Manip and Physiological Therapeutics Vol. 23 No. 7 September 2000.

Edge light pupil cycle time (ELPCT) is a reflex that is controlled by the autonomic nervous system. One way of measuring chiropractic’s effects on autonomic tone, or the overall function of the autonomic nervous system, may be by seeing how ELPCT changes as a result of chiropractic care.

In this study, a group of 13 men gathered at random with no history of eye problems had their ELPCT measured pre- and post- manipulation.

Manipulation consisted of “a high velocity low-amplitude rotatory thrust, localized to the C1-2 joint on the left (n=6) or the right (n=7) determined randomly.”

Significant pre and post ELPCT differences were noted.

Comment by Dr. Koren: This study shows that ELPCT is affected by “manipulation.” However it has some serious limitations as it does not use classical chiropractic protocols. In fact, no healing art should address patient care randomly, as this study does. People were manipulated irrespective of their need for an adjustment and irrespective of whether they had a subluxation. Perhaps a person was adjusted on the right at C1-2 but his listing was on the left? The person could have been hurt. This paper is intriguing but limited since there was no respect for the possibility of subluxation correction or damage in this study.

A retrospective assessment of network care using a survey of self-rated health, wellness and quality of life. Blanks, RHI, Schuster, TL. J Vertebral Subluxation Research Vol. 1 No. 4, 1997.

From the abstract:

This study represents a retrospective characterization of how people respond to Network care, a spinal analysis and adjusting technique derived from a number of chiropractic adjusting techniques. Data were obtained of 2,818 patients from 156 Network offices (49% practitioner participation rate) in the United States, Canada, Australia and Puerto Rico.

Results indicated that patients reported significant positive perceived change in the four domains: physical state, mental/emotional state, stress evaluation, life enjoyment).

Overall quality of life from a standardized index and the “wellness coefficient,” suggest that Network Care is associated with significant benefits.

These benefits are evident from as early as 1-3 months under care, and appear to show continuing clinical improvements in the duration of care …with no indication of a maximum clinical benefit.

Comment by Dr. Koren: Network chiropractic is a combination of chiropractic techniques tailored to the specific needs of the patient. It capitalizes on the best that many traditional chiropractic techniques have to offer. This study is unique in its size, scale and scientific rigor.

The effects of spinal manipulation on the intensity of emotional arousal in phobic subjects exposed to a threat stimulus: a randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical trial. Peterson KB. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, Nov. 1997; 20(9), pp.602-6.

In this study each student’s heart rate and report of fear was taken before, during and after viewing a “phobogenic stimulus” such as a fear-evoking item (ex. spider).

Spinal adjustments were performed while the student was experiencing fear. After the chiropractic adjustment, the phobic test was performed again. The researchers reported: “spinal manipulation significantly decreased the intensity of emotional arousal reported by phobic subjects.”

PET and SPECT in whiplash syndrome: a new approach to a forgotten brain? Otte A, Ettlin TM, Nitzsche EU, Wachter K, Hoegerle S, Simon GH, Fierz L, Moser E, Mueller-Brand J. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1997;63:368-372.
From the abstract:

This study was designed to evaluate perfusion (blood flow) and glucose metabolism (energy utilization) in [the] whiplash brain.

Comment by Dr. Koren: Whiplash patients have traditionally reported a number of symptoms that are related to brain function – such as loss of memory, vision changes and emotional changes. This study involved six patients suffering from whiplash syndrome and 12 normal controls. Chemicals that reveal brain function when viewed by specialized equipment (PET and SPECT) which is similar to a CAT scan for the brain were given to patients. There was “significant hypometabolism” or decreased brain function and hypoperfusion or decreased blood in the parieto-occipital regions on the right and left side compared to controls.

However, most revealing was the authors’ statement as to the possible cause of the brain changes after they ruled out direct injury to the brain and brain structures, upper neck irritation (subluxation?). As they write:

“It is hypothesized that parieto-occipital hypometabolism may be caused by activation of nociceptive afferent nerves from the upper cervical spine.”

Changes in brain function after manipulation of the cervical spine. Carrick FR. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, Oct. 1997;20(8), pp.529-45.

The brain was mapped before and after chiropractic cervical adjustments in 500 adult volunteers. In order to measure blind spots. Blind spots are found in everyone and the size of the blind spot is an indicator of brain function. A larger blind spot indicates less cortical summation (less input from other areas of the brain).

In this study an adjustment on one side of the neck increased blind spot size while an adjustment on the opposite side decreased it. From the paper: “The results support the hypothesis that cortical-response maps can be used to measure the neurological consequences of spinal joint manipulation.”

Comment by Dr. Koren: This is very exciting work which, as our technology continues to evolve, will give us a window into observing how brain activity changes as a result of spinal care.

Monocular scotoma and spinal manipulation: the step phenomenon. Gorman RF, Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 1996; 19:344-9.

In this paper Dr. Gorman discusses the brain blood flow/spinal column relationship in this case history of a 62-year-old man who developed a scotoma (an area of depressed vision or less than normal vision) of the right eye.

With spinal care there was resolution of the scotoma. The rate of recovery of the scotoma was mapped using computerized static perimetry...significant recovery occurred at each spinal manipulation treatment, producing a stepped graph.

This case history suggests that spinal manipulation can affect the blood supply of localized areas of brain tissue. More important is the converse implication that microvascular abnormality of the brain is caused by spinal derangement. Dr. Gorman noted that each spinal manipulation resulted in a step up hence the title ‘stepped graph.’

Monocular visual loss after closed head trauma: immediate resolution associated with spinal manipulation. Gorman RF. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics. Vol. 18, No.3, June 1995.

Dr. Gorman, an Australian ophthalmologist discusses 18 cases where visual field loss was restored following spinal care. The author goes on to discuss the relationship between spinal health and blood supply to the head and brain. Dr. Gorman writes: “ I hold the opinion, based on two decades of dedication to the intricacies of the ‘Cervical Syndrome’ and from a personal experience of 6,000 spinal manipulations done under anesthesia, that concentric narrowing of the visual fields indicates that the child has inferior brain function, which is a serious detriment to child, both internally and externally.”

Two cases of spinal manipulation performed while the patient contemplated an associated stress event: the effect of the manipulation/contemplation on serum cholesterol levels in hypercholesterolemic subjects. Peterson, K.B, Chiropractic Technique, Vol. 7, No.2, May 1995.

Neuro-Emotional Technique (N.E.T.) is a fascinating chiropractic adjusting technique that is used to clear out physical correlations of emotional stress (called neuroemotional complexes by N.E.T. practitioners).

The developer of N.E.T., Scott Walker, D.C. was inspired in part by the technique TBM – Total Body Modification, developed by Victor Frank Chinese medicine. NET correlates acupuncture meridians and related spinal levels and emotional states and is a system that correlates meridians to spinal levels.

His analysis technique uses applied kinesiology (muscle testing) to locate areas of emotional complex. The following case study documents the results of a single NET intervention on each of two women suffering with well documented hypercholesterolemia (high blood cholesterol levels). Baseline serum cholesterol levels for both patients averaged approximately 300 mg/dl and 227 mg/dl respectively. These results occurred between 2 and 5 months after the NET intervention.

Serum cholesterol levels had risen back to the original range at a nine month to a one year follow up.

Course of attention and memory after common whiplash: a two-year prospective study with age, education and gender pair-matched patients. Di Stefano G and Radanov BP Acta Neurol Scand 1995; 91: 346-352).

From the abstract:

Attentional functional and memory of common whiplash patients were evaluated during the first two years after experiencing injury....All (117) patients had a similar socioeconomic background, all being injured in automobile accidents and fully covered by insurance plans. Two years following initial trauma, 21 patients remained symptomatic.

When compared with matched controls, the 21 symptomatic patients had no memory impairment but did have attention functional (difficulty of follow-up of tasks with divided attention).

Comment by Dr. Koren: Some studies have documented attention deficits in symptomatic whiplash patients as well as memory loss. This paper reviews the value of the studies done by others in this field and found them to have designs that were “insufficient.” The chiropractic
interest in this subject is more than that of the neuromusculoskeletal condition of whiplash, but of the brain function that is affected by presumed subluxations of the cervical spine. This work should be studied in concert with Gorman’s and Zhang’s respective papers.

Brain SPECT findings in late whiplash syndrome. Otte A, Mueller-Brand J, Fierz L. Lancet 1995; 345:1512-13.

Using Technetium-99m hexanethylproplyrnrsminr oxime single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT), it was found that 6 of 7 patients with nontraumatic cervical pain had parieto-occipital hypoperfusion (lessened blood flow to the brain).

In 24 patients confirmed by independent observers to be suffering from cognitive disturbances after whiplash injury, all had parieto-occipital hypoperfusion compared with 15 normal control subjects.

impaired arterial blood flow to the brain as a result of a cervical subluxation: a clinical report. Risley, WB. Journal of the American Chiropractic Assoc June 1995. pp. 61-63.

From the abstract:

The author has witnessed impairment of the velocity of arterial blood flow of the occipital artery, unilaterally or bilaterally, as a direct result of a cervical subluxation in over 15,000 patients. This impairment is documented by Doppler examination and is the virtual 100 percent concomitant of a cervical subluxation. Clinical correction of the subluxation, especially at the C-1, C-2 level, restores the blood velocity through the occipital artery, virtually 100 percent of the time. Failure to correct the subluxation commonly fails to relieve the impaired blood velocity in this artery. It is thus an effective monitor of the efficacy of the administered adjustment.

Cerebral dysfunction: A theory to explain some effects of chiropractic manipulation. Terrett AGJ. Chiropractic Technique; 1993; 5:168-173.

From the abstract:

This paper presents a explain a possible mode of action of spinal manipulation in some patients with...visual disorders, dizziness, depression, anxiety,memory problems, attention span problems, difficulty with concentration, irritability, tiredness, and clumsiness.

Dr. Terrett’s work relates to the findings of Gorman, Carrick, Otte and others to advance the theory that diminished blood flow to the brain causes some areas to “hibernate” that is, remain alive, but not function, resulting in diminished mental capacity.

In a letter to the editor, (Chiropractic Technique, Vol.6 No.3, Aug. 1994) Dr. Terrett writes:

“I’m sure that this is exactly what happens to many people every day, and that this is why they suffer problems such as tiredness, headache, depression, irritability, difficulty concentrating, visual difficulty, etc.etc.”

(The article below appeared in a newspaper human interest story on the success of chiropractic care in a child with learning problems.)

Treatment makes a difference By Terry Pender Star Staff Writer The Sudbury Star, February 8, 1993

Jane and Jeff Kuhn watched their son Adam flounder in school from the moment he stepped into his Grade 1 classroom. Adam had lots of trouble reading, didn't like school, didn't participate and needed one-on-one instruction that he couldn't get in class.

He was in Grade 4 but reading at a Grade 1 level.

Adam's teacher suggested they take their son to see a chiropractor, Roger Turner, who was helping children with learning difficulties. The Kuhns watched Turner expertly manipulate the bones in Adam's skull. The parents could actually see the bones moving. Before the treatment, the chiropractor had the Kuhns feel some of the bumps on their son's head. The bumps were caused by the misalignment of different skull bones. When properly aligned there are no bumps.

“Adam is doing better in school, which he now likes. He's even volunteering to read for the class. Comments on his latest report card were ‘excellent,’ and noted the improvements," says Jane. "He's actually writing five page stories where five lines were a struggle before," Adam now sees Turner on a weekly basis to make sure the bones of the skull remain in place. A study of the Neural Organization Technique (N.O.T.) was conducted in England on 12 children with a variety of learning disabilities. The 12 children all showed significant improvements in intellectual functioning.

A British government publication says of that study's results: This study "and others indicate that there is a strong possibility that N.O.T. can offer help. Parents and children deserve that it be fully investigated. There is a responsibility on all concerned, with the well being and education of children with learning disabilities and dyslexia. That is to support the exploration of any new source of potential help, especially one that may extend their capacity to learn so that they may become better equipped to benefit from their education."

Upper cervical adjustments may improve mental function. Thomas MD, Wood J. Journal of Manual Medicine, 1992, 6:215-216.

From the abstract:

This report describes abrupt improvement in mental and motor deficits in a 14-year-old girl after the initiation of specific upper cervical chiropractic care. Cessation of this care for several months was associated with a return to the patient’s previous condition. Repeat manipulation was followed by recovery of the patient to the level of her previous improvement.

The child exhibited staring spells, never made eye contact, left arm and hand were not used and remained flaccid as she walked. She had the verbal ability of a 3-year-old, spoke rarely, and used single words.

She was medically diagnosed with psychomotor seizures and a degenerative neurological disorder.

After chiropractic adjustments began, she began to make eye contact. Within two weeks she was forming sentences, standing straighter, using her left arm and hand normally and began to engage in family conversation and activities.

Changes in brain stem evoked response as a result of chiropractic treatment. Shambaugh P, Pearlman RC, Hauck K. In Proceedings of the 1991 International Conference on Spinal Manipulation, FCER; 227-229.

This paper suggests that chiropractic adjustments, at least in patients with acute musculoskeletal problems, may enhance brain function.

The research modality used was brain stem evoked response or BSER - a measure of how well brain waves travel (in this case following a sound through a headphone).

Four patients with acute musculoskeletal complaints and seven patients with no acute problems were adjusted with diversified technique and cranial adjusting. The four acute patients showed a shorter BSER latency period, indicating that the neural messages were going through their brain stems and auditory nerves more quickly or with less delay.

This study supports the hypothesis that brain stem function can be improved by chiropractic adjustments in patients with acute musculoskeletal complaints.

13-year-old with headache, depression, poor appetite, nausea, general muscular weakness, dizziness and sensitivity to light and noise. Esch, S. ACA J of Chiropractic December 1988.

This is the case of a 13- year-old with a history of respiratory difficulty since birth (home birth, uncomplicated). Infant had difficulty nursing due to “stuffiness”.

Upon presentation, patient was in considerable pain, wearing dark glasses and ear plugs to compensate for increased sensitivity to sound and light. One week beforehand he had been injured in a football game collision. Medical doctors had given the child pain killers and he was hospitalized in traction for two weeks with no improvement.

Chiropractic examination: X-ray (Davis series) of the cervical spine showed right lateral displacement of atlas with right rotation of C-2.

Following the initial adjustment the patient could ride home without wearing his sunglasses and for the first time in two weeks expressed an interest in food. He returned the next day saying he felt, “The best I’ve felt in six weeks.”

A pilot study of applied kinesiology in helping children with learning disabilities. Mathews MO, Thomas E, British Osteopathic Journal Vol. X11 1993; Ferreri CA (1986)

From the paper

All of the children in the treatment group made significant gains in IQ scores. An average increase of 8 Full Scale IQ points and 12 performance IQ points was obtained. Most children showed significant gains in visual perceptual organization. Some made significant gains in other important skills such as short-term auditory memory. Significant improvements were observed both at home and at school with regard to motivation, attitude and performance.

Reports from treatment included: “Dyslexia teacher says he no longer needs help.” “No more thumb sucking.” “Asthma much better on the whole.”

Somatic dysfunction, osteopathic manipulative treatment, and the nervous system: a few facts, some theories, many questions. Irvin M. Korr, Ph.D. Journal Of The American Osteopathic Association, Feb 1986 Vol. 86, no. 2 pp. 109-114.

From the paper:

While biomechanical dysfunction is usually viewed as a causative or contributing factor in the patient’s problem, it is itself a consequence of the imperfections in that person’s total adaptation, which is visible in posture. That adaptation, which is visible in posture and locomotion, is, to the discerning clinician, eloquent expression of the patient’s total personality and view of the world and of self. It is no semantic accident that “posture” and “attitude” apply to both the physical and psychological domains. Given the unity of body and mind, posture and attitude reflect the history and status of both and help in determining where and how the body framework is vulnerable.

Study on cervical visual disturbance and its manipulative treatment. Zhang C, Wang Y, Lu W, et al. J Trad Chinese Medicine, 1984;4:205-210.

From the abstract:

“Determination of blood flow by x-ray in 18 of our cases shows that blood flow of the cerebral hemispheres greatly improves after manipulative treatment. The same is true in similar animal tests.”

From the paper:

“At the 1978 year end 3120 cases of cervical syndrome of which 30 were associated with hypopsia and blindness were summed up with satisfactory results found after manipulative treatment. Vision was restored to no less than 1.0 in 4 cases with blindness.

Chiropractic medicine for rejuvenation of the mind. by R. Frank Gorman. Pub: Academy of Chiropractic Medicine , 8 Budgen Street, Darwin, Australia, 1983.

Gorman, an ophthalmologist with an interest in migraine, worked with Eric Milne, M.D., a general practitioner who had an interest in spinal manipulation.

They discovered a wide range of physical and psychological conditions responding to chiropractic care and believed that most people are suffering from decreased brain functioning due to decreased flow of blood to the brain and that chiropractic spinal manipulation could relieve this problem. They feel that many people are functioning with diminished mental potential or are disabled by “mental illness, which has a simple physical cause.”

The cause they refer to is a restriction in blood flow to the brain because of vertebral misalignment that creates stress on the vertebral arteries.

The effects of chiropractic treatment on students with learning and behavioral impairments due to neurological dysfunction. Walton EV. International Review of Chiropractic 1975; 29(6): 4-5, 24-26.

Twenty-four learning impaired students were in the study. Half of these impaired students received chiropractic care and the other half, who were either on medication or receiving no treatment at all, were used for comparison.

The case histories that follow were obtained from the records of the students who received chiropractic care and appeared in “Chiropractic Effectiveness with Emotional Learning and Behavioral Impairments” International Review of Chiropractic – September 1975..

Case Histories

Case C 91: a high school student who was failing three subjects, with a history of failure, low morale, discipline problems, poor coordination, and a long history of clinical and medical treatment. After chiropractic care the student was passing all subjects, highly motivated, showing improved coordination and able to participate in athletics. All medications were dropped.

Case C 92: a high school student on 20mg. Ritalin™ and on Dilanton™ . She was non-motivated, negative, passive, nonverbal, and failing in school work despite placement in special classes. After chiropractic adjustments the student was taken off Ritalin, began talking and expressing herself, and showed improved reading comprehension and reading speed.

Case CE 92: an elementary student who was extremely hyperkinetic, irritable, and he had severe behavior problems at home and school. Grades were marginal to failing. Although the boy was only 8 years old, Ritalin ™ had been increased from an initial 5mg. to a total of 70mg./day with steadily diminishing results. (70mg. approaches danger level as a dosage). At the conclusion of chiropractic care, the Ritalin had been entirely discontinued and coordination was improved to the extent that the student became an able Little League ball player. His attitude was excellent, grades were up an average of one letter grade, and the student was considered free of all limiting factors. Behavior at home and school was exemplary.

Case CE 101: an elementary student. This student was marginally passing his courses. There was a four year history of marginal accomplishment in school. He was nervous, underweight and suffered from insomnia. Medication was briefly tried but the student’s emotional control became poor and he frequently wept. The medication had to be discontinued. After chiropractic care there was a marked reduction in nervousness and great improvement in emotional stability. His mother reported that his appetite was now normal and he began enjoying school during the last month.

Case C 93: a high school student. Initially on heavy dosages of medication, non-motivated with a long history of clinical evaluation and treatment. The girl was failing most school subjects, marginal in others, and withdrawn. After chiropractic adjustments, her self-confidence improved; she was passing all subjects. All medication was discontinued after four months of treatment. A vocational goal was established.

Case CJ 95: a junior high school student. He was hyperkinetic almost from birth and had a traumatic early developmental history with suspected neurological problems. Although of above average intelligence he was passing only two subjects, both marginally. He was starting to become a discipline problem, making little or no effort in school. After chiropractic care, fine and gross motor coordination improved markedly. He began taking an interest in athletics and played Little League on a team that placed third in the state. Effort and motivation improved to the extent that plans to send him back to a lower grade were dropped and he was promoted. Reports at the third week of school indicated that his academic progress was excellent after a late summer remedial program.

Case CE 102: an elementary student who had been diagnosed by numerous clinics as minimally brain damaged, retarded and/or suffering from neurological dysfunction. He also suffered from severe emotional problems. After chiropractic he showed great improvement in self-confidence. He began to take part in public speaking in school. Mental ability tests indicated that the student was at normal grade level except for deficiencies in reading.

The cervical subluxation and regional cerebral blood flow. Sato, A and Budgell B.

This paper addresses the question of whether the manipulable cervical lesion (subluxation) is likely to affect the blood flow through the vertebral artery and cause reduced blood flow to the brain (“cerebral hibernation”) and if “manipulation” can increase the blood flow. The authors conclude that such an occurrence is “not likely to be due to mechanical compression of the vertebral arteries.”

Dr. Koren comments: Dr. Frank Gorman hypothesized that the reason patients’ visual acuity and other conditions improved after spinal care was due to removed blockage of the vertebral arteries. Dr. Alan G.J. Terrett’s paper on brain hibernation (Cerebral dysfunction: A theory to explain some effects of chiropractic manipulation. Terrett AGJ. Chiropractic Technique; 1993; 5:168-173) discusses vertebral artery blockage as only one possible mechanism of action. However, Terrett has written that there may be more to the decrease in cerebral blood flow due to cervical spine subluxation than blockage of the cerebral arteries.

In answering criticism that blockage of the cerebral arteries could not induce “brain hibernation,” Dr. Terrett agreed that the cerebral arteries may not be the mechanism of the reduced cerebral blood flow due to cervical subluxation and that there may be, and most likely were, other mechanisms involved. As he writes:

The cortex is not the whole deal anyway, the brainstem is not without important blood supply from the vertebral arteries, and without it, the cortex is isolated… In this paper, I did not address the possibility of diaschisis. It is not practical or sensible to separate the brain into sections relating to blood supply apart from the consideration of major segmental catastrophes, such as stroke.

Letter to the editor. Terrett AGJ. Chiropractic Technique Vol 6. No.3, August 1994.

Let us not forget that the mechanism of function is of secondary importance. As with all Empirical healing arts (of which chiropractic is one) the most important thing is whether or not the patient gets better, not how well the mechanism is understood

Automated static perimetry in chiropractic. Gorman RF. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1993; 16: 481-487.

This is the case of a 44 year old housewife with non-specific bilateral visual field loss that disappeared after spinal manipulation under anesthesia. The author writes: This case history demonstrates that spinal manipulation may dissipate microvascular spasm in the brain: even in branches of the carotid arterial system, which is not directly related to the spine.

Mild head injury in preschool children: evidence that it can be associated with a persisting cognitive defect. Wrightson P. McGinnV, Gronwall D. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1995; 59:375-380.

A mild head injury is defined by a hospital emergency department as a head injury not severe enough to need admission for observation. 78 children were compared with 86 controls that had a minor injury in other areas. Children with mild head injury, at six months and one year were found to have scored less on a visual puzzle test and were more likely to have another mild head injury. At 6.5 years, they still scored less than controls.

[Anorexia Nervosa] The side-effects of the chiropractic adjustment. Burnier A. Chiropractic Pediatrics Vol. 1 No. 4 May 1995.

This is a case history of A.S. female, 23 years old taken from the records of Dr. Arno Burnier who at the time practiced in Yardley, PA.

Physical problem: anorexia.

Chiropractic result: Complete resolution following the first adjustment. Follow-up two years later. Problem never returned.

Presenting Vertebral Subluxation: Occiput/C1 with atlas ASLP, C5/C6 P1.

Original adjustment: Meningeal contact on occiput ridge medially close to the EOP for 60 seconds, double notch contact on the sacrum for 20 seconds, axis spinous contact for 20 seconds. Structural manual adjustment of Atlas in extension and rotation, C5/C6 in extension in supine position.

Are radiographic changes in the thoracic and lumbar spine of adolescent’s risk factors for low back pain in adults? A 25-year prospective cohort study of 640 school children. Spine. 1995; 20:2,298-2,302.

This is a study of 640 14-year-old children followed from 1965 through 1990 to determine risk factors for the development of low back pain in adulthood. The lifetime occurrence for back pain was 84% for this cohort. The proportion of subjects having radiographic abnormalities was 36% and yet this was associated with an increased incidence of back pain in adulthood. Interestingly, the investigators did find an increased incidence of mental problems such as fear or depression in the group of patients with radiographic changes in the T11-L2 area.

Cervicalgia with concomitant hot flashes. Case Report. Masarsky, CS, Weber M. ICA Review of Chiropractic, accepted for publication 1993.

This is the case of a 31 year old patient with a ten-day history of stiffness and soreness in her neck. Six weeks prior she had received an intramuscular injection of 3.75 mg of leuprolide acetate in preparation for surgical removal of uterine fibroid tumors. This injection evidently provided hot flashes and other symptoms consistent with artificially induced menopause. The frequency of hot flashes decreased following a single adjustment. Hot flashes were abolished altogether after four additional adjustments over 26 days.

Panic attacks and the chiropractic adjustment: a case report. Potthoff S. Penwell B, Wolf J. ACA J of Chiropractic, 1993 (December) 30:26-28.

This is the case of a 52-year-old female diagnosed with long standing panic attacks. She had been prescribed a variety of antidepressants and tranquilizers over the years, underwent counseling and relaxation training - all to no benefit.

Chiropractic examination revealed areas of upper and mid cervical, upper and mid thoracic and right sacroiliac fixations. The patient’s blood pressure was 182/102 mm Hg, pulse rate 120 beats/minute during an attack. However it would drop to 140/80 and her pulse to 76 beats/minute four minutes after the adjustment. After beginning chiropractic care she had been free of panic attacks for more than two months which is the best she had been in years.

Spinal patterns as predictors of personality profiles: a pilot study. Koren T. and Rosenwinkel E. International J of Psychosomatics. 1992;39:10-17.

Forty patients were analyzed by full spine (14”x36”) radiographs in both sitting (A to P and lateral) and standing (A to P and lateral) positions. Their radiographs were analyzed for distance from center of gravity, pelvic drop, occipital, atlas (C-1), T1, T12 and sacral angles plus the degree and level of thoracic kyphosis. Each patient took a Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) test. The authors then analyzed the data from the radiographs and MMPI for any correlations between psychological expression and spinal indicators. Among the findings: atlas angle (the measure of the number of degrees the atlas deviated from the horizontal plane) correlated to three MMPI scales: hypochondriasis, hysteria and paranoia in both standing and sitting films; the degree of the thoracic curve correlated with the hypomania scale (depression and low energy) only in the standing films and the pelvic drop correlated with “need for nurturing” in the sitting films.

These findings seemed to agree with Dr. Lowell Ward’s Spinal Column Stressology observations.

The chiropractic management of anxiety: a case report. Sullivan EC. ACA J of Chiropractic, 1992 (SEP); 29:29-34.

A 42-year-old female patient suffered from anxiety attacks and agoraphobia since an auto accident. Other symptoms included nightmares, insomnia, tachycardia, dizziness, memory loss, difficulty in concentrating, and urinary bladder urgency. She also reported that a well-controlled peptic ulcer had exacerbated after the accident.

Chiropractic analysis revealed vertebral subluxation complex at C5-6, T5-6, and L5-S1 levels. After two months of chiropractic care and counseling, patient reported a sharp reduction in anxiety, an end to agoraphobia attacks, bladder urgency, insomnia and dizziness and reduced low back pain.

After an additional four months patient reported complete relief from anxiety and ulcer symptoms.

Effect of osteopathic medical management on neurologic development in children. Frymann VM, Carney, RE, Springall P. Journal Of The American Osteopathic Association, 1992; 92:729-744.

Author’s abstract:

For 3 years, children between 18 months and 12 years of age, with and without recognized neurologic deficits, were studied at the Osteopathic Center for Children. Their response to 6 to 12 osteopathic manipulative treatments directed to all areas of impaired inherent physiologic motion was estimated from changes in three sensory and three motor areas of performance.

Neurologic performance significantly improved after treatment in children with diagnosed neurologic problems and to a lesser degree in children with medical or structural diagnoses. The advances in neurologic development continued over a several months interval.

The results support the use of osteopathic manipulative treatment as part of pediatric health care based on osteopathic medical philosophy and principles.

Chiropractic approach to premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Whittler MA Journal of Chiropractic Research and Clinical Investigation, 1992;8:26-29.

Eleven women with histories of PMS were adjusted 2-3 times per week during the premenstrual week and 1-2 times per week during other weeks. All measured symptoms noted improvement including “variation in sexual drive/habits,” “social impairment” and depression.

The effect of chiropractic adjustment on frontalis EMG potentials, spinal ranges of motion and anxiety level. Goff, McConnell, and Paone J of Chiropractic Research and Clinical Investigations, 1991; Vol. 7, No.1

From the abstract:

Several authors have reported the adjustment of the spine causes changes in behavior…this study proposed to test the hypothesis that the chiropractic adjustment caused a decrease in muscle tension and therefore would be expected to modify perceived anxiety.

Effects of chiropractic treatment on blood pressure and anxiety: a randomized, controlled trial. Yates RG, Lamping DL, Abram NL, Wright C. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1988;11:484-8.

Twenty one patients were adjusted T-1 to T-5 in this patient-blinded, assessor-blinded, placebo-controlled study, the authors state that the data “lend support to the hypothesis that chiropractic manipulation of the thoracic spine significantly reduces blood pressure in patients with elevated blood pressure.” Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased significantly in the adjusted group. No significant changes occurred in the placebo or control groups.

Chiropractic treatment of mental illness: a review of theory and practice. Goff PJ. Research Forum. Autumn, 1987.

Between 1920 and 1960, several residential programs for mental health treatment by chiropractors were in existence including two in Davenport, Iowa. The author writes that the “size of two Davenport institutions were remarkable, especially considering the varying economic climate during those years and that all payment was by individuals or their families.” At the same time, state-operated facilities were available at little or no cost. Both chiropractic sanitaria, lasted about 40 years.

W.H. Quigley, D.C., claimed successful treatment of 60% of the admitted population, while the state hospitals of that time reported a success rate of 30%.

Chiropractic Success in a Reform School Report of State Supervisor of Chiropractors of Kentucky In Connection With Kentucky Houses of Reform, Greendale, Kentucky, Marshall L.T., Lexington, Kentucky, December 1, 1931.

244 inmates of a Kentucky Reform School (boys) were placed under chiropractic care. The report is largely made up of case histories of the boys many of whom undoubtedly suffered from various emotional and learning disorders. From the summary:

1. Number of boys given chiropractic adjustments...244.
2. Number of cases dismissed completely recovered or greatly benefited, 155
3. Of the 244 cases, 89 are still under treatment
4. Number of cases promoted in school 54
5. Number of cases paroled 144.
6. Number of boys at Greendale (Kentucky Houses of Reform) at beginning of chiropractic program (September 3, 1930) approximately 540.
7. Number of boys at Greendale Dec. 1st, 1931 approximately 335

State officials were so impressed that they wrote enthusiastic letters of endorsement. B.W. Hubbard, Superintendent, Commonwealth of Kentucky, Kentucky Houses of Reform wrote: “I have been able to notice a marked improvement in the mental and physical condition of the boys, in school work and conduct; also, there has been a larger number of paroles during that period than any previous period during the past four years.” ( p.3)

“We have been able to accomplish results far beyond their fondest hopes and expectations in the rehabilitation of these boys. The teachers have voluntarily and without solicitation signed a petition asking for an all-time or full-time chiropractor in that institution.” (P.1)

From the teachers: “As the records will show the boys who underwent treatment improved from the first adjustment and in many instances showed improvement beyond belief. Not only did they improve in health, but also in their school work as pupils, showing better results in the shops and other industrial training and above all there has been a marked improvement in their moral life.” (p.7).

Despite these endorsements, chiropractic services were not continued at the institution.

A copy of this report can be obtained from the Palmer College reference library.

Books on the subject:

Schwartz, H.S., Preliminary analysis 350 mental patients’ records treated by Chiropractors, Journal of National Chiropractic Association (Nov. 1949), pp. 12-15.=

Mental Health and Chiropractic, A Multidisciplinary Approach, Sessions Publishers, 48 Nassau Drive, New Hyde Park, New York, N.Y. 11040. 1973.

Dunn, E.E. Osteopathic Concepts in Psychiatry, Journal Of The American Osteopathic Association 49: 354-357, (1950) Schizophrenics displayed subluxation of C-1 37.6%, C-2 66%, C-3 41.2%. T-4 54%, T-5 74.6%, T-6 67.6%.

Quigley, W.H. “Physiological psychology of chiropractic in mental disorder”. Ch. 10 in Mental Health and Chiropractic. 70% of schizophrenics and 33% of brain syndrome patients were successfully treated by chiropractic and released out of 72 cases studied.

Copyright 2004 Koren Publications, Inc. & Tedd Koren, D.C.

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